It’s a model to describe large signal behaviour of a transistor, and start with the simple notion of two back to back diodes. For example the diodes seen at the two . It can be shown that (see S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices), therefore . where. More Complete Ebers-Moll Model. Model includes configurational. Ideal transistor model. Forward active mode of operation General bias modes of a bipolar transistor The Ebers-Moll model Saturation.

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The common-base current gain is approximately the gain of current from emitter to collector in the forward-active region. By convention, the direction of current on diagrams ebeers shown as the direction that a positive charge would move.

As shown, the term, xin the ebera represents a different BJT lead depending on the topology used. The ideal transistor model is based on the ideal p-n diode model and provides a first-order calculation of the dc parameters of a bipolar junction transistor. Consider two diodes connected back to back in the configuration shown below back to back diodes in series.

The incidental low performance BJTs inherent in CMOS ICs, however, are often utilized as bandgap ebere referencesilicon bandgap temperature sensor and to handle electrostatic discharge. Darlington transistor Sziklai pair Cascode Long-tailed pair. Both types of BJT function by letting a small current input to the base control an amplified output from the collector.

Ebers-moll model of transistor | ECE Tutorials

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. They are the forward active mode of operation, the reverse active mode of operation, the saturation mode and the cut-off mode.

Sedra and Kenneth C. Assume there is no recombination in the depletion region. The emitter current due to electrons and holes are obtained using the “short” diode expressions derived in section 4. The discussion of the ideal transistor starts with a discussion of the forward active mode of operation, followed by a general description of the four different bias modes, the corresponding Ebers-Moll model and a calculation of the collector-emitter voltage when the device is biased in saturation.


Applying anti log on both sides we get. Thus, the hottest part of the die conducts the most current, causing its conductivity to increase, which then causes it to become progressively hotter again, until the device fails internally. For the specific case where the base-emitter and base-collector voltage are the same and the base doping is uniform, there can be no minority carrier diffusion in the base so that: Holt, Reinhart, and Winston. Small changes in the voltage applied across the base—emitter terminals cause the current between the emitter and the collector to change significantly.

Moll introduced their mathematical model of transistor currents: The junction version known as the bipolar junction transistor BJTinvented by Shockley in[11] was for three decades the device of choice in the design of discrete and integrated circuits. These electrons diffuse through the base from the region of high concentration near the emitter toward the region of low concentration near the collector.

Your email address will not be published. The forward current entering the base is sweeped across into collector by the electric filed generated by the reverse bias voltage applied across the base collector junction.

Consider two diodes connected back to back in the configuration shown below.

Ebers-moll model of transistor

This allows BJTs to be used as amplifiers or switches, giving them wide applicability in electronic equipment, including computers, televisions, mobile phones, audio amplifiers, industrial control, and radio transmitters.

The current equations derived above is interpreted modeo terms of a model shown in the figure. Retrieved August 10, The resulting reduction in minority carrier lifetime causes gradual loss of gain of the transistor.

The resulting current gain, under such conditions, is: By applying it to the quasi-neutral base region and assuming steady state conditions: Saturation is therefore avoided in high-speed bipolar logic circuits. The model can be quite accurate for low-frequency circuits and can easily be adapted for higher-frequency circuits with the addition of appropriate inter-electrode capacitances and other parasitic elements.

This allows thermally excited electrons to inject from the emitter into the base region. BJTs are manufactured in two types, NPN and PNP, and are available as individual components, or fabricated in integrated circuitsoften in large numbers. The collector diode is reverse-biased so I CD is virtually zero.


While this boundary condition is mathematically equivalent to that of an ideal contact, there is an important difference. The parameters I E,sI C,sa F and a R are the saturation currents of the base-emitter and base collector diode and the forward and reverse transport factors. The DC emitter and collector currents in active mode are well modeled by an approximation to the Ebers—Moll model:.

Using the parameters mol, in Figure 5. Minority-carrier distribution in the quasi-neutral regions of a bipolar transistor a Forward active bias mode. To allow for greater current and faster operation, most bipolar transistors used today are NPN because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility.

The collector—emitter current can be viewed as being controlled by the base—emitter current current controlor by the base—emitter voltage voltage control.

That drift component of transport aids the normal diffusive transport, increasing the frequency response of the transistor by shortening the transit time across the base. A small current leaving the base is amplified in the collector output. These have ebegs addressed in various more advanced models: It is common in modern ultrafast circuits, mostly RF systems. It is less than unity due to recombination of charge carriers as they cross the base region.

While the forward active mode moddel operation is the most useful bias mode when using a bipolar junction transistor as an amplifier, one cannot ignore the other bias modes especially when using the device as a digital switch.

For high-frequency analyses the inter-electrode capacitances that are important at high frequencies must be added. The modes of operation can be described in terms of the applied voltages this description applies to NPN transistors; polarities are reversed for PNP transistors:.